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what's the nail application?

In woodworking and construction, a nail is a pin-shaped, sharp object of hard metal or alloy used as a

fastener. Formerly wrought iron, today's nails are typically made of steel, often dipped or coated to

prevent corrosion in harsh conditions or improve adhesion. Ordinary nails for wood are usually of a

soft, low-carbon or "mild" steel (about 0.1% carbon, the rest iron and perhaps a trace of silicon or

manganese). Nails for concrete are harder, with 0.5-0.75% carbon

Nails are typically driven into the workpiece by a hammer, a pneumatic nail gun, or a small explosive

charge or primer. A nail holds materials together by friction in the axial direction and shear strength

laterally. The point of the nail is also sometimes bent over or clinched after driving to prevent falling

Nails are made in a great variety of forms for specialized purposes. The most common is a wire nail.

Other types of nails include pins, tacks, brads, and spikes.

nail history

Nails go back at least to the Ancient Roman period. The provision of iron for nails by King David for

Solomon's Temple is mentioned in the Bible.[1] Until the end of the 18th century, they were made

by hand, and were provided by an artisan known as a nailer. Until the early 17th century there were

workmen called Slitters who cut up iron bars to a suitable size for Nailers to work on, but in 1590

the slitting mill was introduced to England, providing a mechanical means of producing rods of

uniform cross-section. In the 19th century, after the invention of machines to make "cut nails",

some nails continued to be made by hand, but the handmade nail industry gradually declined and

was largely extinct by the end of that century.

Manufactured cut nails were first introduced in America at the end of the 18th century. Cut nails

are machine-cut from flat sheets of steel (originally iron). They are also called square nails

because of their roughly rectangular cross section. Though still used for historical renovations,

and for heavy-duty applications, such as attaching boards to masonry walls, cut nails are much

less common today than wire nails. 

Different types of nails: 1) Roofing nail, 2) Umbrella head roofing nail, 3) Brass escutcheon pin, 4) Finish nail, 5) Concrete nail, 6) Spiral-shank nail, and 7) Ring-shank nail (the barbs are a leftover component of the feed system of a nail gun)Types of nail include:

brass tack - Brass Tacks are commonly used where corrosion may be an issue, such as furniture where contact with human skin salts will cause corrosion on steel nails.
bullethead nail
canoe tacks
carpet tack
casing - Casing nails have a head that is smoothly tapered, in comparison to the "stepped" head of a finish nail. When used to install casing around windows or doors, they allow the wood to be pried off later with minimal damage when repairs are needed, and without the need to dent the face of the casing in order to grab and extract the nail. Once the casing has been removed, the nails can be extracted from the inner frame with any of the usual nail pullers.
coil nails
coffin nail
fiber cement
finish - has the same diameter as a box nail.
masonry - fluted nail for use in concrete
Nail-maker's work-bench or anvil in a storeroom of the Black Country Living Museumnail bomb shrapnel
oval brad - Ovals utilize the principles of fracture mechanics to allow nailing without splitting. Highly anisotropic materials like regular wood (as opposed to wood composites) can easily be wedged apart. Use of an oval perpendicular to the wood's grain cuts the wood fibers rather than wedges tham apart, and thus allows fastening without splitting, even close to edges.
floor brad (aka 'stigs') - flat, tapered and angular, for use in fixing floor boards
panel pin
plastic strip
gutter spikes
roofing tack
ring shank - nails that contain ridges along the shank to provide extra support, an example would be the HurriQuake
shake - small headed nails to use for nailing sidewall shakes
Teco - 1-1/2 x .148 shanks nails used in metal connectors (usually hurricane ties)
veneer pin
wire-weld collated
[edit] SizesMost countries, except the United States, use a metric system for describing nail sizes. A 50 x 3.0 indicates a nail 50 mm long (not including the head) and 3 mm in diameter. Lengths are rounded to the nearest millimetre.

For example, finishing nail* sizes typically available from German suppliers are:

Length Diameter
mm mm
20 1.2
25 1.4
30 1.6
35 1.6
35 1.8
40 2.0
45 2.2
50 2.2
55 2.2
55 2.5
60 2.5
60 2.8
65 2.8
65 3.1
70 3.1
80 3.1
80 3.4
90 3.4
100 3.8
90 3.8
100 4.2
110 4.2
120 4.2
130 4.6
140 5.5
160 5.5
180 6.0
210 7.0

Drahtstift mit Senkkopf (Stahl, DIN 1151)
[edit] United States penny sizesIn the United States, the length of a nail is designated by its penny size, written with a number and the abbreviation d for penny; for example, 10d for a ten-penny nail. A larger number indicates a longer nail, shown in the table below. Nails under 1¼ inch, often called brads, are sold mostly in small packages with only a length designation or with length and wire gauge designations; for example, 1" 18 ga or 3/4" 16 ga.

Penny sizes originally referred to the price for a hundred nails in England in the 15th century: the larger the nail, the higher the cost per hundred.[2][3][4][5] The system remained in use in England into the 20th century, but is obsolete there today. The d is an abbreviation for denarius, a Roman coin similar to a penny; this was the abbreviation for a penny in the UK before decimalisation.

penny size length
(inches) length
(nearest mm)
2d 1 25
3d 1¼ 32
4d 1½ 38
5d 1¾ 44
6d 2 51
7d 2¼ 57
8d 2½ 65
9d 2¾ 70
10d 3 76
12d 3¼ 83
16d 3½ 89
20d 4 102
30d 4½ 115
40d 5 127
50d 5½ 140
60d 6 152

[edit] TerminologyBox — a wire nail with a head; box nails have a smaller shank than common nails of the same size
Bright — no surface coating; not recommended for weather exposure or acidic or treated lumber
Casing — a wire nail with a slightly larger head than finish nails; often used for flooring
CC or Coated — "cement coated"; nail coated with adhesive (cement) for greater holding power; also resin- or vinyl-coated; coating melts from friction when driven to help lubricate then hardens when cool; color varies by manufacturer (tan, pink, are common)
Common — a common construction wire nail with a disk-shaped head that is typically 3 to 4 times the diameter of the shank: common nails have larger shanks than box nails of the same size
Duplex — a common nail with a second head, allowing for easy extraction; often used for temporary work, such as concrete forms
Drywall — a specialty blued-steel nail with a thin broad head used to fasten gypsum wallboard to wooden framing members
Finish — a wire nail that has a head only slightly larger than the shank; can be easily concealed by countersinking the nail slightly below the finished surface with a nail-set and filling the resulting void with a filler (putty, spackle, caulk, etc.)
Galvanized — treated for resistance to corrosion and/or weather exposure
Electrogalvanized — provides a smooth finish with some corrosion resistance
Hot-dip galvanized — provides a rough finish that deposits more zinc than other methods, resulting in very high corrosion resistance that is suitable for some acidic and treated lumber; often easier to bend than other types of nails
Mechanically galvanized — deposits more zinc than electrogalvanizing for increased corrosion resistance
Head — round flat metal piece formed at the top of the nail; for increased holding power
Helix — the nail has a square shank that has been twisted, making it very difficult to pull out; often used in decking
Length — distance from the head to the point of a nail
Phosphate-coated — a dark grey to black finish providing a surface that binds well with paint and joint compound and minimal corrosion resistance
Point — sharpened end opposite the "head" for greater ease in driving
Ring Shank — small rings on the shank to prevent the nail from being worked back out often used in flooring
Shank — the body the length of the nail between the head and the point; may be smooth, or may have rings or spirals for greater holding power
Sinker — Same thin diameter as a box nail, length 1/8 in shorter than shown in above table, cement coated (see above), with a grid embossed on the head to keep the hammer from slipping; these are the common nails used in framing today
Spike — a large nail; usually over 4 in (100 mm) long
[edit] Nails in art
Nagelfigur "The Iron Roland of Mannheim", 1915Nails have been used in art, such as the Nail Men - a form of fundraising common in Germany and Austria during the First World War.